Blood pressure or BP is the force or pressure of blood pushing against the inner lining of arteries. High blood pressure also named as hypertension that occurs when the force rises and stays higher than standard range for a period of time. This situation can damage the blood vessels, brain, heart and other organs.
Hypertension or High blood pressure is defined as high pressure or tension in the arteries which are the vessels that transmit blood from the heart to the rest of the body. You need to know all the things about what is high BP, Symptoms of High BP and risk factors of high BP etc.
Blood pressure readings are provided as two numbers. The Systolic Blood Pressure (the top number) equivalents the pressure in the arteries as the heart compresses.
The Diastolic Pressure (the bottom number) is the pressure in the arteries as the heart calms. General blood pressure is lesser than 120/80; blood pressure (BP) between 120/80 and 139/89 is named as “pre-hypertension” and 140/90 or above blood pressure is shown, it is considered high while a systolic blood pressure of about 90-100 is regarded as low blood pressure.
High BP Causes
In 90% of people with hypertension, the major cause of high BP is not known. While the particular cause is unknown, there are many risk factors that can add to developing high blood pressure.
There are Two Major Types of High Blood Pressure
Primary (Essential) Hypertension
For most of the adults, there is no certain cause of high BP. This kind of high BP called Primary or Essential hypertension tends to grow gradually over many years.
Some people have the problem of high BP caused by an underlying condition. This kind of high blood pressure also named as secondary hypertension, tends to appear suddenly and lead to higher blood pressure than does primary hypertension. Multiple circumstances and medications can lead secondary hypertension, containing:
- Thyroid problem
- Kidney problems
- Obstructive sleep apnea
- Adrenal gland tumors
- Certain drugs like over-the-counter pain killers, cold remedies, birth control pills, decongestants and some prescription drugs
- Illegal drugs like amphetamines and cocaine
- Certain deficiencies in blood vessels you are born with (inborn)
- Alcohol abuse or chronic alcohol use
Symptoms of High Blood PressureHigh BP generally causes no signs or symptoms and high BP often is marked “the silent killer”. Usually people with high BP don’t know it until blood pressure is measured.
Sometimes people with high blood pressure may enhance:
- Blurred vision
- Chest pain and shortness of breath
- Nausea and vomiting
- Heart Failure
- Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)
- Eye damage with progressive vision loss
- Heart Attack
- Outpouchings of the aorta, known as aneurysms
- Peripheral arterial disease leads to leg pain when walking (claudication)
- Kidney Failure
Risk Factors in High BPHigh blood pressure has various risk factors, containing:
AgeThe risk of high blood pressure rises as you age. By early middle age, or about the age of 45, high blood pressure is more general in men. Women are more probable to build up high blood pressure after age of 65.
CategoryHigh blood pressure is especially common among blacks (nigros), often building at an early age than it occurs in whites. Severe obstacles like heart attack, kidney failure and stroke are more general in blacks.
Family HistoryHigh BP tends to run in families.
Being Obese or Over WeightThe more you weigh up the more blood you require to supply oxygen and nutrients to your tissues. As the amount of blood circulation through your blood vessels enhances, so carry out the pressure on your artery walls.
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Not Being Physically ActivePeople those are inactive lean to have higher heart rates. The maximum your heart rate, the harder your heart should work with each constriction and the stronger the pressure on your arteries. Be short of physical activities also enhances the risk of being overweight.
Using TobaccoNot just smoking or chewing tobacco instantly increases your blood pressure temporarily, but the chemicals in tobacco can injure the lining of your artery walls. It can cause your arteries to contracted, enhancing your blood pressure. Secondhand smoke can also be the reason of increasing blood pressure.
Too Little Potassium in Your DietPotassium helps in balancing the amount of sodium in your cells. If you don’t find sufficient potassium in your diet or maintain enough potassium, you may gather too much sodium in your blood.
Too Much Sodium (Salt) In Your DietToo much salt in your diet can lead your body to maintain fluid that increases blood pressure.
Too Modest Vitamin D in Your DietIt is uncertain if including too little vitamin D in your food can cause high BP. Vitamin D can affect an enzyme created by your kidneys which affects your blood pressure.
Drinking Too Much AlcoholHeavy drinking can damage your heart. Taking more than 2 drinks in a day for men and more than one drink in a day for women can badly affect your blood pressure.
StressExcessive stress can cause temporary increase in blood pressure.
Certain Chronic ConditionsSome chronic conditions may raise your risk of high BP like diabetes, sleep apnea and kidney disease.
Sometimes pregnancy also causes high blood pressure.
Though Symptoms of High BP occur mostly in adults, kids may be at risk, too. For some kids, high BP is caused by diseases with the heart and kidneys. But for a developing number of children, poor lifestyle habits like an unhealthy diet, lack of exercise and obesity, contribute to high BP.
ComplicationsThe extreme pressure on your artery walls caused by high BP can harm your blood vessels, as well as organs in your body. The higher your BP and the longer it goes uncontrolled, the higher the damage.
Apart from kidney failure, heart attack or stroke, there may be some other complications due to high BP. That can be:
AneurysmIncreased BP can lead your blood vessels to bulge and weaken, creating an aneurysm. If an aneurysm cracks, it can be very life-threatening.
Narrowed and Weakened Blood Vessels in Your KidneysIt can prevent these organs from working normally.
Narrowed, Thickened or Torn Blood Vessels in Your EyesIt can lead vision loss.
Metabolic SyndromeThis syndrome is a group of disorders of your body’s metabolism, involving increased waist circumference; low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, high triglycerides; the “good” cholesterol and high insulin levels. These situations make you more probable to grow diabetes, stroke and heart disease.
Trouble with Understanding and MemoryUncontrolled High BP Symptoms may also affect your capability to think, learn and remember. Trouble with understanding or memory concepts is more general in people with high BP.
Heart FailureTo pump blood against the higher force in your vessels, your heart muscle thickens. Ultimately, the thickened muscle may have a hard time pumping sufficient blood to blood to meet your body’s requirements that can cause heart failure.
Many people with no Symptoms of High BP, even if blood pressure readings arrive at dangerously high stages. Some people with high BP may have shortness of breath, headaches or nosebleeds, but these symptoms are not particular and generally don’t happen until high BP has reached a life-threatening or serious stage.